The newest algorithm utilized for figuring the new SE is below: SE = (sphere) + (cylinder)/2

The method used that have an optometric examination where visual evaluation was indeed performed into the most of the participants to measure its graphic acuity, each other with and in the place of modification, creating refraction, and you will examining binocular eyes and you will holiday accommodation.

Understanding the Variables

To determine the children’s optical prescription, the spherical equivalent (SE) was calculated and the participants were classified according to their SE into hypermetropic, those whose SE was greater than +0.50 diopters; myopic, those whose SE was < -0.50 Diopters or emmetropic, those whose SE was between?0.50 and +0.50, Diopters (34).

The Clinical Myopia Profile classification was used to calculate the number of hours children spent outdoors, performing near-vision activities, using electronic devices and the influence of their family history (35). According to Gifford, the time the children that spend outdoors during the day (exposure to sunlight) can be classified as low (if they spend between 0 and 1.6 h a day), moderate (if they spend between 1.6 and 2.7 h a day) or high (if they spend more than 2.7 h a day). Concerning near-vision time (excluding school hours), it can be classified as high (more than 3 h a day), moderate (2–3 h a day), or low (0-2 h a day). Within this time interval, the percentage of time spent using digital devices was determined as: <25%, between 25 and 50%, and >50%. With regards to genetics, the questionnaire asked whether either parent or both parents were short-sighted.

Statistical Investigation

Mathematical data is actually held using the SPSS 25.0 software (SPSS Inc., il, Illinois). The fresh descriptive data away from quantitative details is actually did with the indicate, standard departure, believe interval and chances ratio. The brand new qualitative variables was indeed examined using the distribution away from wavelengths and you will proportions. Simply because implemented a low-parametric shipping with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov sample, brand new Kruskal-Wallis sample was utilized getting study research. Incidence are determined that have an effective 95% trust period basically, a cut-out-of area out-of p ?0.05 was thought to measure the mathematical value.


The research try held in month off , coinciding on the start of university seasons. A maximum of 8,408 medical details from all around The country of spain had been tested (step 3,991 from inside the 2016, 2,161 into the 2017, and you can dos,257 inside 2019). Of those suggestions, 711 was indeed omitted because they did not meet the addition requirements (children was significantly less than 5 years or over seven yrs old), and 199 on account of lost research. Altogether, 7,497 people was basically checked, from which 35.5% (letter = 2658) was basically emmetropic, 46.6% (n = 3493) had been hypermetropic and you will 18% (n = 1346) was in fact myopic. The rates vary across the many years (Figure step 1). An average chronilogical age of participants try six.16 ± 0.78 many years. Regarding sex, cuatro,027 (53.7%) of the players was indeed men, and you can step three,471 (46.3%) was lady.

The latest indicate SE really worth was 0.80 ± 2.03 Diopters (0.00 ± 0.15D from inside the emmetropia, 2.34 ± step one.67D within the hypermetropy, and?step one.64 ± 1.54D when you look at the myopia). With regards to age, SE at 5 years are 0.97 ± dos.fifteen Diopters, at the six ages 0.83 ± dos.00 Diopters, and at 7 years 0.66 ± step one.98 Diopters. Away from gender, mean SE philosophy had been 0.81 ± dos.10 Diopters into the men members and 0.78 ± step one.95 Diopters from inside the lady players.

Brand new incidence out-of myopic in children old 5-eight decades has increased out-of 16.8% (letter = 594) inside the 2016 so you can 19% (letter = 390) inside 2019 (OR: step one.step one4; CI: 1.09?step one.19; p ? 0.001). This new prevalence out of myopia enhanced more and more as we grow old (p ? 0.001) having 13.9% (letter = 247) in children old 5 years, 17.6% (n = 469) in children old six decades and you can % (n = 630) in kids old eight many years (OR: 6.28; CI: six.26-6.31; p ? 0.001). Yet not, zero significant organization between gender and you will myopia was imagined (p = 0.169).